APOLO Project : Record efficiency of 18.95% for 11.6 cm2 encapsulated flexible perovskite solar modules

Published on 06/23/2022

Flexible perovskite solar modules with a surface area of 11.6 cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 18.9%

The CEA at INES obtained flexible perovskite solar modules with a surface area of 11.6 cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 18.9% (stabilized efficiency > 18.5%). To the best of our knowledge, this performance is a world record for the flexible perovskite modules over 10 cm2.

Perovskite-based solar cells have attracted a great attention in the last 10 years due to their excellent optoelectronic properties. Currently, the power conversion efficiencies of solar devices using these materials have exceeded 25% for single junctions and 29% in tandem structures with silicon. Record results were obtained on small areas in the order of 1 cm².

For some applications, the use of flexible substrates may be attractive for single-junction perovskite technology as it opens the way to high-speed, low-temperature printing processes. Thus, it becomes possible to use low cost substrates whereas inorganic flexible technologies, such as CIGS, require higher temperature processes and substrates that are more expensive.

Many teams around the world are trying to meet the challenges of making larger area devices with sufficient stability for real-life applications. This is one of the tasks that have set to themselves partners of the European APOLO project, in which CEA obtained these results.

Credits: Crédit CEA : Perovskites modules before and after flexible encapsulation

Obtaining flexible perovskite solar modules

These flexible perovskite solar modules have been obtained at low temperature on low cost substrates (PET) and with a very simple structure composed of 5 layers including electrodes. The displayed performances are obtained after encapsulation (also flexible). The stability of these devices has been tested under damp heat conditions (85°C, 85%RH), according to the standards used in silicon technologies. A stability of several hundreds of hours was obtained (400 to 800h according to encapsulation) considering a standard objective of 1000h.

To achieve this result, the CEA has worked on

  • The optimization of the stack of layers that make up the cell,
  • The use of a 3-step laser process to produce the module
  • The development of a flexible encapsulation process that is fully compatible, without initial loss, with highly gas-barrier materials.

The European APOLO project (European Union’s Horizon research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 763989), which finances this work, is coming to an end.

Modules will be interconnected in series to obtain high voltages and will be tested according to building standards by Flexbrick company, member of Apolo consortium. In addition, stability tests of encapsulated flexible modules under real outdoor conditions are currently being carried out.

In addition, these modules are currently being tested at the Fraunhofer Institute ISE, also a partner in the APOLO project, for indoor applications. These tests already showed power conversion efficiencies of up to 24.5% at very low illumination (500 lux). Certification is being considered.

Credits: Crédit CEA : JV-characteristics of encapsulated champion module
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